Brazil is one of the main producers of ethanol fuel and Brazil ethanol history goes back a long way. Sugarcane has been cultivated in the country since 1532 and was exported to Europe by Portuguese settlers 17 . In the late 1920s the automobile was introduced to Brazil 18 and it became profitable to turn sugarcane into ethanol fuel. World War II had a huge impact on Brazil ethanol history since German submarine attacks made it difficult to transport oil across the oceans. In 1943, it became mandatory for car fuel to contain at least 50% enthanol. 19 After the war, cheap and readily transported oil prevailed and ethanol fuel was normally only produced when there was an unusual surplus of sugar. 20
two experiments were carried out to estimate sodium requirements for brown-eggs laying hens in the late first and during second egg-production cycle. a completely randomized design was used, with seven sodium levels (, , , , , and %), six replications of six birds in the late first egg-production cycle and five replications of six birds in the second egg-production cycle. in the late first egg-production cycle, sodium levels (sl) had no effect on feed intake (fi), egg weight (ew), egg dozen feed conversion (edc) and egg-shell specific gravity (sg). the sl showed quadratic effect on egg production (ep), egg mass (em) and egg mass feed conversion (emc), that resulting in sodium requirements (sr) of , and %, respectively. in the second egg-production cycle, sl had no effect on ew and sg. however, ep, em, emc and edc improved when the levels of sodium were , , and %, respectively. considering the estimates of sodium requirements to egg production and egg mass feed conversion, could be suggests % e % as maximum sodium levels, respectively, to late first and second egg-production cycle.