Three types of passive transport are osmosis, diffusion, and facilitated diffusion. Osmosis is the natural movement of water from a high concentration of water to a lower concentration of water. Diffusion is the natural movement of molecules from a higher concentration to a lower concentration. Facilitated Diffusion is the natural movement of molecules from a higher concentration to a lower concentration with the help of a transporter protein embedded on the cell membrane.
Active transport requires energy to occur. Active transport is “forced” movement of molecules from a lower concentration to a higher concentration. The most common type of active transport is a pump. Pumps are proteins embedded in the cell membrane, which use ATP energy to work.
Each terminal button is connected to other neurons across a small gap called a synapse. The physical and neurochemical characteristics of each synapse determines the strength and polarity of the new input signal. This is where the brain is the most flexible, and the most vulnerable. Changing the constitution of various neurotransmitter chemicals can increase or decrease the amount of stimulation that the firing axon imparts on the neighbouring dendrite. Altering the neurotransmitters can also change whether the stimulation is excitatory or inhibitory.