Within cohort 2 (red dots), serum CTX levels increased significantly more than in the controls in every testosterone group ( P < for each comparison), with increases exceeding those observed in cohort 1 by 50%–100%. Serum CTX even increased substantially more in cohort 2 than in cohort 1 in men who received placebo testosterone ( Figure 3A ), possibly because serum estradiol levels were higher in men who received placebo testosterone alone (cohort 1, ± pg/ml) than in men who received placebo testosterone plus anastrozole (cohort 2, ± pg/ml). Within cohort 2, there was a significant inverse relationship between the testosterone dose and the increase in serum CTX levels. CTX levels increased more in the groups that received 0, , or grams of testosterone gel daily than in the 2 higher-dose groups, and these differences persisted even when the results were adjusted for the small differences in serum estradiol levels between testosterone-dose groups in cohort 2. Serum P1NP tended to increase more in groups that received anastrozole than in those that did not, though most of the individual comparisons were not statistically significant.
Cardiovascular risk factors include the alteration or diminishing of her glucose tolerance and hyperinsulinism (become resistant to insulin), a change in lipoproteins (carry cholesterol in blood) fraction which can cause cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis (deposition of fatty substances onto inner walls of arteries causing blockage), increased triglyceride levels, hypertension (abnormally high blood pressure), changes in her myocardium (middle muscular layer of heart wall), and increased concentration levels of several different clotting factors. Cardiomyopathy (a typically chronic disorder of heart muscle that may involve hypertrophy and obstructive damage to the heart), myocardial infarction (localized death of the myocardium tissue usually leading to heart failure), heart attack, stroke, and cerebro-vascular accidents have all been causes in deaths where AAS abuse was implicated. Of course the liver, the body’s primary filtration system will come under attack as it has to accommodate the increased toxicity. Among the liver problems promoted are holestatic jaundice (failure of bile flow that causes yellowish pigmentation of skin, tissues, and body fluids), peliosis hepatis (blood-filled cysts develop on liver), hepatocellular hyperplasia (unusual increase of an epithelial parenchymatous cell called hepatocytes in the liver), and cancer. Secondary filters such as the kidneys and gallbladder also become more susceptible to disease.